There are thought to be as few as 3,200 tigers left in the wild. Numbers have fallen by about 95% over the past 100 years and three subspecies – the Bali, Caspian and Javan tiger – are already extinct. The Bengal tiger is the most numerous subspecies but the population is only 2,500 individuals – and declining. Living mainly in India but also in Bangladesh, Nepal and Bhutan, the Bengal tiger is officially classified as ‘endangered’.
The biggest single threat to the survival of the species is poaching. Tigers are illegally killed for their skins and body parts, which are used in traditional Asian medicines. Growing prosperity in Asian economies has led to an increasing demand for tiger-based medicines. The second major challenge is habitat loss. Deforestation, agriculture and rapid infrastructure development is forcing tigers into small, scattered islands of remaining habitat.